The anchoring phenomenon for this unit is “Objects do not move on their own.” In this unit, students investigate ways to move objects and describe their movement: pushes can be described by their strength and direction; pulls can be described by strength and direction; and when two objects collide, they will change direction or push against each other and stop.
The Performance Expectations (PEs) addressed in this unit are:
|K-PS2-1||Plan and conduct an investigation to compare the effects of different strengths or different directions of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object.|
|K-PS2-2||Analyze data to determine if a design solution works as intended to change the speed or direction of an object with a push or a pull.|
|K-2-ETS1-1||Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool.|
The Learning Sequence narrative briefly describes what students do in each lesson and links the learning between the lessons as a conceptual storyline. At the end of each learning sequence, students make connections to their understanding between the phenomenon/identified problem and the anchoring phenomenon.
The anchoring phenomenon for the learning sequence is, “Objects do not move on their own.” This learning sequence uses a soccer game as a context for putting objects into motion. In Lesson 1, pushes and pulls are explored by moving motionless objects in a box. This leads to the understanding of the investigative phenomenon “Game balls do not move on their own.” In Lesson 2, students are presented with the coach’s problem of how to move the soccer materials to the field. Developing a design for moving the materials in one trip leads to the identified problem “Soccer materials do not move on their own to the field.” Lesson 3 explores the investigative phenomenon of “Discs move different distances” through playing a minishuffleboard game. Connections are made between the strength of a push and the distance a disc travels. This strength of the force contributes to understanding the cause and effect of pushes. Lesson 4 explores the investigative phenomenon of how “Windy days change how the ball moves in soccer.” This connects to kindergarten earth science observations of weather. Lesson 5 explores the investigation phenomenon of “A ball thrown against a wall changes directions.” Students play a game of wall ball and a game of mini wall ball to understand collisions, stopping, and changes in direction. Lesson 6 returns to the soccer game by planning a solution to the identified problem of “More goals are made in soccer with a plan.” This is a problem that requires all the concepts presented in the Learning Sequence to design the best solution for the problem.
Asking Questions and Defining Problems
Asking questions and defining problems in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to simple descriptive questions that can be tested.
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to simple investigations that provide data to support explanations or design solutions.
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Analyzing data in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to collecting, recording, and sharing observations.
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Constructing explanations and designing solutions in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to the use of evidence and ideas in constructing evidence-based accounts of natural phenomena and designing solutions.
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
PS2.A: Wave Properties
PS2.B: Types of Interactions
PS3.C: Relationship Between Energy and Forces
ESS2.D: Weather and Climate
ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems
ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions
Cause and Effect
The following Learning Sequence Narrative is based on the conceptual flow concept map above.
This lesson introduces students to a real-world context for how pushes and pulls are used to make objects (balls) move in soccer and other games.
In this first lesson, the investigative phenomenon (a motionless ball) is used to generate ideas and ask questions about the ways to move a soccer ball. (SEP) Students’ prior knowledge about how balls are made to move in soccer is used as a motivation for the discussion. (DCI) (CCC)
Once the motionless ball is moved, the investigation uses the motionless objects in the exploration box to figure out different methods for moving or stopping objects. (DCI, SEP) Movement or stopping of any object (effect) has a cause that can be described as a push or pull. (CCC) This learning experience offers opportunities for the teacher to support student use of words describing a push and pull that causes movement or stopping of movement. (Embedded vocabulary)
Understanding the investigative phenomenon “Game balls do not move on their own” will lead to understanding the anchoring phenomenon “Objects do not move on their own.” Realizing that the objects in the box are moved or stopped by pushes or pulls leads to an understanding of motion and the academic words used to describe the force. The lesson concludes with a class assessment opportunity by completing the “What do we know about moving objects such as soccer balls?” in the kindergarten science notebook. (DCI)
At the conclusion of Lesson 1, students were presented with an engineering challenge. Soccer materials were displayed on the floor and students generated questions about what they needed to know to move the materials to the field. Students start this lesson with their list of questions. The students are then presented with some constraints to solve the problem: a set of materials that can be used for the move and the idea that their solution should require only one person making one trip. Plans are discussed, and partners develop a model of their solution on a poster to share with the class. (SEP) Class discussions focus on how different structures in the design cause objects to move differently. (CCC)
Designing a solution leads to a deeper understanding of how pushes and pulls are used to design solutions to problems.
The concepts of cause and effect related to pushes and pulls contributes to the understanding of the anchoring phenomenon of how pushes and pulls are used to move motionless objects such as soccer equipment to the field.
At the conclusion of Lesson 2: Pullapalooza, students generated a list of other ideas they needed to figure out how to make a motionless ball score a goal. This lesson deepens their understanding of movement by describing the strength of a push. (DCI) The investigative phenomenon “Discs move different distances” is observed in a video of shuffleboard. Students play a mini-shuffleboard game where the cause and effect of different-strength pushes result landing in different sections of the shuffleboard. They gather data about the push used and the distance traveled. (CCC) (SEP) Understanding that different pushes result in different distances traveled by a disc in the shuffleboard deepens understanding of the anchoring phenomenon that motionless objects won’t move on their own. Movement from pushes show patterns to predict distances.
Lesson 3: Cruising Discs explored the force of the pushes used in a mini-shuffleboard game. In this lesson, understanding the strength of a push is deepened by changing the cause of the push. (CCC) This concept is introduced through a video that shows the phenomenon of high winds pushing on a ball. (CCC)
While we cannot see wind, we can see what wind does to objects. To explore this concept, students blow through two different-sized straws causing a small ball to move at different speeds. (DCI) By collecting and analyzing data, they deepen their understanding of ways to change the strength of a push. (SEP) When playing soccer, a strong wind can push the ball in a different direction.
The second part of this lesson extends the experiment with straw and ball. Students use the science and engineering practice of collaboratively designing and planning an investigation to determine how to change the direction that an object moves as well as changing the strength of the push. (SEP)
In the previous lessons, investigative phenomena using explorations with pushes and pulls established that pushes and pulls stop objects or move them in different directions. The force of the push or pull will impact the distance traveled during the movement. (DCI)
In this lesson, the investigative phenomenon is “A ball thrown against a wall changes direction.” It explores the question of how to get a ball around defenders in soccer. The activity for the investigation begins by observing how a ball moves in a wall ball game. Understanding how the ball moves in wall ball deepens the concept that when objects collide, the direction of the movement changes in predictable patterns. (DCI)
In this mini-wall ball exploration, a ball is rolled down a ramp to collect data about the effect of a ball colliding with a wall. (SEP) The ramp is used to keep the force of the ball consistent during the investigation. Data will be collected and recorded showing the effect of changing the angle of the ramp has on the collision of the ball with the wall. This data will be used to collaboratively discuss how the changes with the ramp cause predictable patterns of collisions with the wall. This leads to a deeper understanding of the effects and patterns. (CCC)
Wall ball helps build an understanding of how players on a soccer field are used as collision points that can change the direction and strength of a push on a soccer ball. This investigation adds to the knowledge of the anchoring phenomenon of how motionless objects can be made to move.
In this final investigation, the data collected from observing and recording pushes that change direction in Lesson 5: When Two Objects Collide will be used to collaboratively design a solution or strategy for using collisions to move a ball around an obstruction. Materials available to design or engineer the plan for scoring are familiar materials used throughout the investigations: a ramp, a collision wall, a goal, and a ball. (SEP) (CCC) (DCI)
Students collaboratively plan, test, adjust their plan, and retest leading to the selection of the best plan or solution. Students use what they have figured out in Lesson 1: Exploration Box about pushes and pulls, combined with designing solutions in Lesson 2: Pullapalooza, strategic use of the strength of the force in Lesson 3: Cruising Discs, forces of pushes from wind in Lesson 4: Huff, Puff, and Move the Ball as well as changes due to collisions in Lesson 5: When Two Objects Collide to plan for collisions in the final explanation of how to move a motionless ball using the strength of force and collisions to score a goal in soccer.
An individual plan for scoring is evaluated on understanding how to get a motionless object (soccer ball) to move in predictable ways using the strength of a kick (ramp), placement of players for collisions or stopping motion, and direction of kicks to score goals.
Karal Blankenship, San Diego USD, Kindergarten teacher
Priscella Barcellos, Lakeside USD, Kindergarten teacher
Karen Cerwin, K–12 Alliance Regional Director, WestEd
Ann Zelaya, Palm Springs USD, Kindergarten teacher
Kimberly Allard, San Diego USD, Science Enrichment Teacher
Debbie Gordon, Palm Springs Unified School District, Teacher on Special Assignment (TOSA)
Stephanie Loutzenhiser, Galt USD, Kindergarten teacher
Maggie Jordan, Palm Springs USD, Kindergarten teacher
Katherine Worrell, Vista USD, Kindergarten teacher
Catie Lopez, Vista USD, Kindergarten teacher
Achieve Science Peer Review Panel
A Collaboration of the K-12 Alliance @ WestEd, Aspire Public Schools, Galt JUSD, High Tech High, Kings Canyon USD, Lakeside USD, Oakland USD, Palm Springs USD, San Diego USD, Tracy USD, Vista USD, Achieve, and the California Department of Education
with funding from the S.D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation and Hastings-Quillin Fund
The California K–8 NGSS Early Implementation Initiative, developed by the K–12 Alliance at WestEd with close collaborative input on its design and objectives from the State Board of Education, the California Department of Education, and Achieve is a fast-start demonstration project to build local education agency (LEA) capacity to fully implement the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) as a core subject in the elementary grades (K–5) and as the SBE’s preferred integrated model in grades 6–8.
The four-year Initiative provides teachers and administrators with in-depth, content-rich professional development to build leadership capacity and teacher acumen to deliver high-quality 3-dimensional learning for K–8 students. In addition, through collaborations among the K–12 Alliance, Achieve, and others, the LEAs in the Collaborative have opportunities to pilot test new NGSS-aligned tools, processes, assessment item prototypes, and digital and other instructional materials. The LEAs serve as resources for NGSS implementation across California, and in other NGSS-adopting states as well.
Participants in the CA NGSS K–8 Early Implementation Initiative developed and field-tested the lessons in the learning sequence. The sequences were vetted by Science Peer Review Panel using Achieve’s EQuiP rubric for science and found to be aligned with the intent of the NGSS.
NGSS Lead States. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
A Framework for K–12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17226/13165. National Research Council; Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education; Board on Science Education; Committee on a Conceptual Framework for New K–12 Science Education Standards. National Academies Press, Washington, DC.